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The (randomly) selected focus publication for August/September 2016 is:

Bull, P. (2016) Claps and Claptrap: An analysis of how audiences respond to rhetorical devices in political speeches. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 4(1), 473-492. [PDF]

Abstract: Significant insights have been gained into how politicians interact with live audiences through the detailed microanalysis of video and audio recordings, especially of rhetorical techniques used by politicians to invite applause. The overall aim of this paper is to propose a new theoretical model of speaker-audience interaction in set-piece political speeches, based on the concept of dialogue between speaker and audience. Research is reviewed not only on applause, but also on other audience responses, such as laughter, cheering, chanting, and booing. Research is also reviewed on other factors besides rhetorical devices, in particular, delivery, speech content, and uninvited applause. Although these analyses are based primarily on British speeches, they also include recent studies of speeches delivered in both Japan and the USA. This cross-cultural perspective, it is proposed, provides significant insights into the role of political rhetoric in speaker-audience interaction, which may be usefully conceptualized in terms of broader cross-cultural differences between collectivist and individualist societies.

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The (randomly) selected focus publication for June/July 2016 is:

Chevalier, B.A.M., Watson, B.M., Barras, M.A., Cottrell, W.N. (in press). Hospital Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Medication Counselling: A Focus Group Study. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy. [PDF]

Abstract:

Background
Medication counseling sessions are key times for a pharmacist to speak to patients about their medications and the changes made to their therapies during their hospital stay.

Objectives
To explore hospital pharmacists’ perceptions of their roles and goals in patient medication counseling, and perceived barriers and facilitators to achieving their goals.

Methods
Hospital pharmacist focus groups were held in two tertiary referral hospitals. Eligible pharmacists had provided medication counseling within the previous six months in inpatient and/or outpatient settings. Interested pharmacists attended a focus group designed to elicit their opinions and perceptions of patient medication counseling. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive thematic analysis was applied to the data to identify initial patterns (codes) which were then organized into common overarching themes using NVivo® software. The codes were reviewed for reliability by pharmacists independent of the focus groups.

Results
Six, 1-h focus groups were conducted with a total of 24 pharmacists participating. Saturation of information was determined after four focus groups. Greater than 80% consensus was achieved for reliability of the identified codes. A number of themes emerged from these codes around the goals, roles, and the barriers and facilitators to meeting these goals. Pharmacists’ patient-centered goals in medication counseling were to build rapport, to empower patients and to improve patients’ experience, health and safety. These goals would be accomplished through specific roles such as being an assessor, educator and problem-solver. Pharmacists frequently cited time pressures caused by systemic (hospital), and pharmacy specific processes as key challenges to achieving their goals. Factors that enabled pharmacists to meet their goals were those related to effective interprofessional collaboration and the quality of professional practice (such as training, expanded roles and advanced planning for discharge).

Conclusions
Hospital pharmacists emphasized patient-centered goals in medication counseling and outlined the challenges to meet those goals. The findings from this study will be used to develop strategies for effective communication and inform pharmacy practice changes to improve patient care.

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The (randomly) selected focus publication for May 2016 is:

Setchell, J., Watson, B., Jones, L., & Gard, M. (2015). Weight stigma in physiotherapy practice: Insights from patient experiences of interactions with physiotherapists. Manual Therapy. 20, 835–841. [ PDF ]

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:

Weight management is increasingly considered part of physiotherapists’ scope of practice in order to improve patient outcomes by, for example, reducing load on joints, or improving chronic pain. However, interactions with patients involving weight may result in patient perceptions of negative judgement from health professionals, which can result in poorer health outcomes. How physiotherapist/patient interactions involving weight are perceived by patients has not yet been investigated.

OBJECTIVES:

To explore patients’ perceptions of interactions with physiotherapists that involved weight, and investigate how these perceptions may inform physiotherapy practice.

DESIGN:

Face-to-face interviews with physiotherapy patients, with follow up interviews conducted by telephone. Data were analysed thematically.

METHOD:

First interviews were held in a physiotherapy practice with follow up interviews conducted two weeks later. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic method established by Braun and Clarke.

FINDINGS:

Thirty interviews with 15 patients were analysed. Four main themes relevant to weight were identified: 1) perceptions of being ‘in physiotherapy’ including pre-conceptions, the physical environment, and exposing the body, 2) emphasis placed on weight in physiotherapy interactions, 3) communication styles, and 4) judgement perception.

CONCLUSION:

Some patients perceived negative weight judgements from elements of physiotherapy interactions and environments. Physiotherapists need to be aware of this perception because it may result in poorer patient outcomes and patients avoiding physiotherapy appointments. The results suggest strategies to counteract weight stigma include: adjusting the physical environment of the clinic, portraying an understanding of complex determinants of weight, and employing collaborative, non-judgemental communication styles.

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On behalf of the IALSP Executive Committee, I’m delighted to announce that nominations are now open for the Jim Bradac Prize.   The Jim Bradac Early Career Prize is awarded to an IALSP member who, within five years of completing her/his PhD, has already made a significant contribution to the field as evidenced by her/his cumulative body of work to date.   Details can be found here:  http://ialsp.org/awards/.  Nominations of no more than two sides of paper should be emailed as word documents to me by April 30th, 2016 at  tony.young@ncl.ac.uk.  A distinguished panel, including past Bradac awardees, will then make a decision on the winner by May 20th.